Top 20 React.JS interview questions.

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As a React developer, it is important to have a solid understanding of the framework’s key concepts and principles. With this in mind, I have put together a list of 20 important questions that every React developer should know, whether they are interviewing for a job or just looking to improve their skills.

Before diving into the questions and answers, I suggest trying to answer each question on your own before looking at the answers provided. This will help you gauge your current level of understanding and identify areas that may need further improvement.

Let’s get started!

01. What is React and what are its benefits?

Ans: React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It is used for building web applications because it allows developers to create reusable UI components and manage the state of the application in an efficient and organized way.

02. What is the virtual DOM and how does it work?

Ans: The Virtual DOM (Document Object Model) is a representation of the actual DOM in the browser. It enables React to update only the specific parts of a web page that need to change, instead of rewriting the entire page, leading to increased performance.

When a component’s state or props change, React will first create a new version of the Virtual DOM that reflects the updated state or props. It then compares this new version with the previous version to determine what has changed.

Once the changes have been identified, React will then update the actual DOM with the minimum number of operations necessary to bring it in line with the new version of the Virtual DOM. This process is known as “reconciliation”.

The use of a Virtual DOM allows for more efficient updates because it reduces the amount of direct manipulation of the actual DOM, which can be a slow and resource-intensive process. By only updating the parts that have actually changed, React can improve the performance of an application, especially on slow devices or when dealing with large amounts of data.

03. How does React handle updates and rendering?

Ans: React handles updates and rendering through a virtual DOM and component-based architecture. When a component’s state or props change, React creates a new version of the virtual DOM that reflects the updated state or props, then compares it with the previous version to determine what has changed. React updates the actual DOM with the minimum number of operations necessary to bring it in line with the new version of the virtual DOM, a process called “reconciliation”. React also uses a component-based architecture where each component has its own state and render method. It re-renders only the components that have actually changed. It does this efficiently and quickly, which is why React is known for its performance.

04. Explain the concept of Components in React.

Ans: A React component is a JavaScript function or class that returns a React element, which describes the UI for a piece of the application. Components can accept inputs called “props”, and manage their own state.

05. What is JSX and why is it used in React?

Ans: JSX is a syntax extension for JavaScript that allows embedding HTML-like syntax in JavaScript. It is used in React to describe the UI and is transpired to plain JavaScript by a build tool such as Babel.

06. What is the difference between state and props?

Ans: State and props are both used to store data in a React component, but they serve different purposes and have different characteristics.

Props (short for “properties”) are a way to pass data from a parent component to a child component. They are read-only and cannot be modified by the child component.

State, on the other hand, is an object that holds the data of a component that can change over time. It can be updated using the setState() method and is used to control the behavior and rendering of a component.

07. What is the difference between controlled and uncontrolled components in React?

Ans: In React, controlled and uncontrolled components refer to the way that forms are handled. A controlled component is a component where the state of the form is controlled by React, and updates to the form’s inputs are handled by event handlers. An uncontrolled component, on the other hand, relies on the default behavior of the browser to handle updates to the form’s inputs.

A controlled component is a component where the value of input fields is set by state and changes are managed by React’s event handlers, this allows for better control over the form’s behavior and validation, and it makes it easy to handle the form submission.

On the other hand, an uncontrolled component is a component where the value of the input fields is set by the default value attribute, and changes are managed by the browser’s default behavior, this approach is less performant and it’s harder to handle form submission and validation.

08. What is Redux and how does it work with React?

Ans: Redux is a predictable state management library for JavaScript applications, often used with React. It provides a centralized store for the application’s state and uses pure functions called reducers to update the state in response to actions.

In a React app, Redux is integrated with React via the react-redux library, which provides the connect function for connecting components to the Redux store and dispatching actions. The components can access the state from the store, and dispatch actions to update the state, via props provided by the connect function.

09. Can you explain the concept of Higher Order Components (HOC) in React?

Ans: A Higher Order Component (HOC) in React is a function that takes a component and returns a new component with additional props. HOCs are used to reuse logic across multiple components, such as adding a common behavior or styling.

HOCs are used by wrapping a component within the HOC, which returns a new component with the added props. The original component is passed as an argument to the HOC and receives the additional props via destructuring. HOCs are pure functions, meaning they do not modify the original component but return a new, enhanced component.

For example, a HOC could be used to add authentication behavior to a component, such as checking if a user is logged in before rendering the component. The HOC would handle the logic for checking if the user is logged in, and pass a prop indicating the login status to the wrapped component.

HOCs are a powerful pattern in React, allowing for code reuse and abstraction while keeping the components modular and easy to maintain.

10. What is the difference between server-side rendering and client-side rendering in React?

Ans: Server-side rendering (SSR) and client-side rendering (CSR) are two different ways of rendering a React application.

In SSR, the initial HTML is generated on the server and then sent to the client, where it is hydrated into a full React app. This results in a faster initial load time, as the HTML is already present on the page, and can be indexed by search engines.

In CSR, the initial HTML is a minimal, empty document, and the React app is built and rendered entirely by the client. The client makes API calls to fetch the data required to render the UI. This results in a slower initial load time, but a more responsive and dynamic experience, as all the rendering is done on the client.

11. What are React Hooks and how do they work?

Ans: React Hooks are a feature in React that allow functional components to have state and other lifecycle methods without using class components. They make it easier to reuse state and logic across multiple components, making code more concise and easier to read. Hooks include useState for adding state and useEffect for performing side effects in response to changes in state or props. They make it easier to write reusable, maintainable code.

12. How does React handle state management?

Ans: React handles state management through its state object and setState() method. The state object is a data structure that stores values that change within a component and can be updated using the setState() method. The state updates trigger a re-render of the component, allowing it to display updated values dynamically. React updates the state in an asynchronous and batched manner, ensuring that multiple setState() calls are merged into a single update for better performance.

13. How do work useEffect hook in React?

Ans: The useEffect hook in React allows developers to perform side effects such as data fetching, subscription, and setting up/cleaning up timers, in functional components. It runs after every render, including the first render, and after the render is committed to the screen. The useEffect hook takes two arguments – a function to run after every render and an array of dependencies that determines when the effect should be run. If the dependency array is empty or absent, the effect will run after every render.

14. Can you explain the concept of server-side rendering in React?

Ans: Server-side rendering (SSR) in React is the process of rendering components on the server and sending fully rendered HTML to the browser. SSR improves the initial loading performance and SEO of a React app by providing a fully rendered HTML to the browser, reducing the amount of JavaScript that needs to be parsed and executed on the client and improving the indexing of a web page by search engines. In SSR, the React components are rendered on the server and sent to the client as a fully formed HTML string, improving the initial load time and providing a more SEO-friendly web page.

15. How does React handle events and what are some common event handlers?

Ans: React handles events through its event handling system, where event handlers are passed as props to the components. Event handlers are functions executed when a specific event occurs, such as a user clicking a button. Common event handlers in React include onClick, onChange, onSubmit, etc. The event handler receives an event object, which contains information about the event, such as the target element, the type of event, and any data associated with the event. React event handlers should be passed

as props to the components, and the event handlers should be defined within the component or in a separate helper function.

16. Can you explain the concept of React context?

Ans: React context is a way to share data between components without passing props down manually through every level of the component tree. The context is created with a provider and consumed by multiple components using the useContexthook.5

17. How does React handle routing and what are some popular routing libraries for React?

Ans: React handles routing by using React Router library, which provides routing capabilities to React applications. Some popular routing libraries for React include React Router, Reach Router, and Next.js.

18. What are some best practices for performance optimization in React?

Ans: Best practices for performance optimization in React include using memoization, avoiding unnecessary re-renders, using lazy loading for components and images, and using the right data structures.

19. How does React handle testing and what are some popular testing frameworks for React?

Ans: React handles testing using testing frameworks such as Jest, Mocha, and Enzyme. Jest is a popular testing framework for React applications, while Mocha and Enzyme are also widely used.

20. How do you handle asynchronous data loading in React?

Ans: Asynchronous data loading in React can be handled using various methods such as the fetch API, Axios, or other network libraries. It can also be handled using the useState and useEffect hooks to trigger a state update when data is returned from the API call. It is important to handle loading and error states properly to provide a good user experience.

In conclusion, this blog post covers the top 20 major questions that a React developer should know in 2023. The questions cover a wide range of topics from the basics of React, its benefits, and architecture, to more advanced concepts such as JSX, state and props, controlled and uncontrolled components, Redux, Higher Order Components, and more. By trying to answer each question yourself before looking at the answers, you can gain a deeper understanding of the React framework and become a better React developer.

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